On this day in history – January 9, 

several significant events took place across different time periods. Let’s explore some of the notable occurrences that happened on this day throughout history.

Before the 1600s:

681: In the Twelfth Council of Toledo, King Erwig of the Visigoths enacted measures specifically targeting the Jews in Spain.

1127: Jurchen soldiers invaded Bianjing in 1127, resulting in the end of the Northern Song dynasty in China during the Jin-Song Wars.

1349: The residents of Basel believed the Jewish population to be responsible for the Black Death in 1349, leading to their roundup and incineration.

1431: The trial of Joan of Arc commenced in Rouen.

1693: Sicily was struck by two devastating earthquakes in 1693, resulting in a death toll estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 people.

From 1601–1900:

1760: The Battle of Barari Ghat took place in 1760, with Ahmad Shah Durrani emerging victorious over the Marathas.

1787: The iconic Black Nazarene image in the Philippines was transferred to Quiapo Church in 1787, an event commemorated annually through Traslación.

1788: Connecticut ratified the United States Constitution in 1788, becoming the fifth state to do so.

1792: The Treaty of Jassy concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 between the Russian and Ottoman Empires in 1792.

1793: Jean-Pierre Blanchard accomplished the first balloon flight in the United States in 1793.

1799: British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduced a two-shilling income tax in 1799 to fund the Napoleonic Wars.

1806: Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson received a state funeral in 1806, finding his resting place in St. Paul’s Cathedral.

1816: Humphry Davy tested a safety lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery in 1816.

1822: In 1822, the Brazilian prince Pedro I defied the orders of the Portuguese King João VI, establishing the pathway for the Brazilian independence process.

1839: The Daguerreotype photography process was announced by the French Academy of Sciences in 1839.

1857: An intense earthquake, known as the Fort Tejon earthquake, struck Central and Southern California with a magnitude of 7.9 Mw in 1857.

1858: British forces achieved victory over Rajab Ali Khan of Chittagong in 1858.

1861: The “Star of the West” incident occurred in 1861 near Charleston, South Carolina, marking an early episode of the American Civil War. Additionally, Mississippi seceded from the Union on this day.

1878: Umberto I ascended to the throne as King of Italy in 1878, marking a significant moment in Italian history.

1901–present:

1903: Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, assumed the role of the second Governor-General of Australia in 1903.

1909: Ernest Shackleton planted the British flag during the Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole in 1909, setting a record at a distance of 97 nautical miles from the South Pole.

1914: The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity was founded by African-American students at Howard University in Washington D.C. in 1914.

1916: The Battle of Gallipoli concluded in 1916 with an Ottoman Empire victory as the last Allied forces evacuated the peninsula.

1917: The Battle of Rafa took place near the Egyptian border with Palestine during World War I in 1917.

1918: The Battle of Bear Valley in 1918 marked the end of the American Indian Wars.

1920: The All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee outlawed the Makhnovshchina, sparking the Bolshevik-Makhnovist conflict in the Ukrainian War of Independence.

1921: The First Battle of İnönü commenced in 1921, representing the initial battle of the Greco-Turkish War.

1923: Juan de la Cierva achieved the first autogyro flight in 1923, while Lithuanian residents rebelled against the League of Nations’ decision to leave the Memel Territory under French control. Unfortunately, a tragic fire at the Laurier Palace movie theatre in Montreal claimed the lives of 78 children in 1927.

1941: The Avro Lancaster aircraft took its first flight in 1941, becoming a significant asset for the war effort.

1945: The Sixth United States Army initiated the invasion of Lingayen Gulf in 1945, playing a crucial role in World War II.

1957: British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden resigned in 1957 following a failed attempt to retake the Suez Canal from Egyptian sovereignty.

1959: A disastrous flood caused by the Vega de Tera dam failure nearly destroyed the town of Ribadelago in Spain in 1959, claiming 144 lives.

1960: President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser inaugurated the construction of the Aswan Dam in 1960.

1961: The Soviet Portland Spy Ring was uncovered in London in 1961, shedding light on Soviet espionage activity.

1962: NASA announced plans to build the C-5 rocket launch vehicle, a crucial component of the Apollo program, in 1962.

1964: Martyrs’ Day in the U.S.-controlled Panama Canal Zone saw Panamanian youths attempting to raise their flag, leading to a conflict with the U.S. military in 1964.

1991: Representatives from the United States and Iraq convened at the Geneva Peace Conference in 1991, seeking a resolution to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

1992: The Assembly of the Serb People proclaimed the creation of Republika Srpska, a new state within Yugoslavia, in the same year. Astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced the first discoveries of extrasolar planets orbiting the pulsar PSR 1257+12 in 1992.

1996: The First Chechen War witnessed a massive hostage crisis in Dagestan in 1996, originating from a raid by Chechen separatists.

1997: Comair Flight 3272 tragically crashed in Michigan, claiming 29 lives in 1997.

2003: TANS Perú Flight 222 crashed in Peru in 2003, resulting in the loss of 46 lives.

2004: An inflatable boat carrying illegal Albanian emigrants stalled near the Karaburun Peninsula, causing the second deadliest marine disaster in Albanian history with 28 lives lost.

2005: Mahmoud Abbas was elected as the President of the Palestinian National Authority, succeeding Yasser Arafat, in 2005. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement, marking the end of the Second Sudanese Civil War, was signed between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan in the same year.

2007: Apple CEO Steve Jobs unveiled the original iPhone at a Macworld keynote in San Francisco in 2007, marking a revolutionary moment in the history of smartphones.

2011: Iran Air Flight 277 tragically crashed near Urmia, Iran, resulting in the loss of 77 lives in 2011.

2014: An explosion at a Mitsubishi Materials chemical plant in Japan caused the death of at least five people. The perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shooting were killed following a hostage situation in Paris in the same year, while a second hostage situation unfolded at a Jewish market in Vincennes.

2015: Mozambique witnessed a mass poisoning at a funeral in 2015, claiming 75 lives and leaving over 230 people ill.

2021: Sriwijaya Air Flight 182 tragically crashed in Indonesia, resulting in the loss of all 62 people on board.

Remembering the events that occurred on this day in history helps us understand the diverse and impactful moments that have shaped our world.

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